What is COVID-19 Coronavirus

What is COVID-19 Coronavirus

This Information brief provides relevant information and resources for COVID-19, its symptoms, routes of transmissions and control measures to reduce the risk of infection and transmission.

What is COVID-19

Coronavirus (COVID-19) is a respiratory illness that belongs to a large family of viruses that can make both humans and animals sick. This Family can cause illnesses that can range from the common cold to more severe diseases. The first reported case of COVID-19 was December 2019 in Wuhan City, China.

Symptoms of COVID-19

1. COVID-19 symptoms can range from a mild illness to pneumonia, with varying severities of illness and levels of recovery based on personal and health factors (see ‘Who is at Risk?’ below).

2. Symptoms of coronavirus may include:
– A fever (a temperature above 38 degrees is a good indicator of a low-level fever);
– Flu-like symptoms such as coughing, sore throat and fatigue; and/or
– Shortness of breath.

How does it spread?

The virus is known to spread through:
– close contact with an infectious person;
– contact with droplets from an infected person’s cough or sneeze; and
– touching objects or surfaces (like doorknobs or tables) that have cough or sneeze droplets from an infected person, and then touching your mouth or face without suitably cleaning your hands.
Given these known routes of transmission, control measures shall focus on reducing potential for these situations to occur.

Who is at risk?

As the route of transmission is known to be through direct transmission or contact transmission, the risk of contracting COVID-19 is higher in people who have:
– Travelled internationally to high risk countries (e.g. China, Iran, Italy, South Korea); and/or
– Been in close contact with someone who is a confirmed case of coronavirus.

Populations at a greater risk of developing a serious illness as a result of COVID-19 include:
– people with compromised immune systems (e.g. cancer) or diagnosed chronic medical conditions (high blood pressure, heart disease, lung disease);
– the elderly; & Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

What cleaning products are effective on COVID-19?

Effective personal hygiene is the most effective way of reducing the spread of COVID-19. The following personal hygiene products and processes are considered effective to reduce the spread of COVID-19:

1. Hand washing with Antibacterial Hand Wash or Soap for 20 seconds washes away viruses and also removes dirt and grease.

2. Using Antibacterial Hand Sanitisers with >60% alcohol (preferably more) or 3% hydrogen peroxide are very effective, especially when applied generously. Dirty or greasy hands should be washed before using antibacterial hand washes and sanitisers to ensure effectiveness.

3. Using antibacterial sanitising surface cleaning and disinfectant products (e.g. wipes and sprays) with active ingredients of Benzalkonium Chloride (>0.05%); Accelerated hydrogen peroxide (>2.0%); Chloroxylenol (>0.12%); or Alcohol (>60%).

LJOILS have a number of products listed below which have active ingredients at concentrations that are effective
for the disinfection of COVID-19, including Antibacterial Hand Gel (@ 70% Ethanol); Antibacterial Sanitising Surface and Hand Spray (@>3% Hydrogen Peroxide and Silver Salts) Antibacterial Hand Wash (with Silver Salts) Oxygenate 3.0 for the treatment of water purification and oxygenation (@>3% Hydrogen Peroxide and Silver Salts).

WHAT DO I NEED TO DO? (What’s my 50%)

Reduce the chances of contracting and spreading COVID-19

There are several personal hygiene practices that can reduce your risk of contracting and spreading any
kind of virus, including COVID-19:

1. If you start to feel unwell or develop symptoms associated with coronavirus or any other type of
illness, do not come to work. Ring your doctor first, advise them of your symptoms and request
an appointment.

2. Practice good personal hygiene: a. Washing your hands often, with antibacterial hand wash or soap and water, or use antibacterial hand sanitiser regularly or as needed.
b. Cover your mouth when coughing or sneezing, but don’t use your hands to do so. Ensure that you dispose of used tissues or other items as appropriate to reduce exposure.
c. Avoid touching your mouth or face where possible, especially after touching common equipment if you haven’t cleaned or sanitised your hands.

3. Avoid close contact (e.g. 2 meters) with any person exhibiting any symptoms (coughing, sneezing).

Other precautions and myths

Surgical masks are only helpful in preventing people who have the coronavirus disease from spreading it to others. If you are well, you do not need to wear a surgical mask as there is little evidence supporting the widespread use of surgical masks in healthy people to prevent transmission in public.

think u might have COVID-19 – what do u do?

If you are at home:
– Avoid contact with others, do not attend work and self-isolate.
– Seek medical assistance. Call doctor’s office or the emergency room, prior to attending to advise them of your symptoms and request an appointment.
– Tell your doctor about your recent travel and your symptoms.

If you are at work:
– Avoid contact with others, advise your Supervisor or H&S Personnel via phone or email.
– Self-isolate by attending your site’s first aid room.
– Wait for a first aid officer to respond. They will provide you with relevant PPE and assist in coordinating a suitable response based on symptoms.



1. Health Topics – Coronavirus (COVID-19), Australian Government (Department of Health),

2. Coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) situation reports, World health Organisation,

3. COVID-19: Countries and regions considered to pose a risk of transmission, Australian Government
(Department of Health), https://www1.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/ohp-covid-19-countries.htm

4. Travel restrictions, Flight operations and Screening, International SOS,

5. Coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) Situation Reports, World health Organisation,

6. Information on the use of surgical masks, Australian Government (Department of Health),

7. Coronavirus (COVID-19) Health alert, Australian Government (Department of Health),

8. Interim List of Household Products and Active Ingredients for Disinfection of the COVID-19 Virus
(revised 1 March 2020), https://www.nea.gov.sg/our-services/public-cleanliness/environmental-cleaningguidelines/guidelines/interim-list-of-household-products-and-active-ingredients-for-disinfection-of-covid-19

9. Coronavirus (COVID-19): Advice for PCBUs, Safe Work Australia,

10. Cornoavirus (COVID-19) Isolation Guidance, Australian Government (Department of Health),

Key Terms

Close contact – greater than 15 minutes face-to-face contact (within 2 meters) in any setting, or sharing of a closed space for a prolonged period (e.g. more than 2 hours).