Common Cold and Flu Guide
The common cold and flu are caused by viruses that spread from person to person. Ways you can contract cold and flu include:
- Breathing in tiny droplets containing the viruses that are launched into the air every time someone who has a cold or flu sneezes, coughs or speaks around you.
- By touching a contaminated surface, like a tissue used by a person that is unwell, door handles, hand rails, benches and telephones, then touching your eyes or mouth.
What’s the difference between a common cold and the flu?
It’s sometimes hard to tell. Many of the symptoms are the same and both are caused by viruses, not bacteria, which means you can’t treat colds and flu with antibiotics. Cold symptoms are generally milder than those of flu.
The common cold at a glance
The common cold is a viral infection affecting the upper respiratory system. Symptoms can appear within 10-12 hours of exposure and can include:
- Runny nose
- Sore or irritated throat
- Low-grade fever (mostly in young children)
The flu at a glance
There are three types of flu virus. Type A viruses cause most cases of the human flu and some disease in animals. Type B are less common and cause less severe illness. Type C viruses usually only cause mild flu and are rare. Symptoms of the flu tend to be more serious than those of the common cold and can include:
- Sudden fever
- Dry cough
- Achy muscles
- Sore throat
- Extreme tiredness
- Runny or blocked nose
How long is the flu contagious?
The incubation period for flu is usually 1-3 days after exposure. If you have picked up a flu infection, you can infect someone the day before your symptoms develop, and sometimes up to seven – ten days after your symptoms appear. That means you can pass on the flu to someone else before you know you have it.
How to prevent the cold and flu
Good hygiene can help prevent the spread of cold and flu viruses around the home.
- Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when coughing and sneezing
- Put used tissues in a bin and wash your hands thoroughly afterwards
- Wash your hands frequently with soap and water or use a hand sanitiser
- Regularly clean and disinfect frequently touched surfaces, especially door handles, handrails and taps
- Avoid close contact with people who have a cold or flu
Going out with wet hair or clothes will cause a cold. It’s something our grandmothers and mums have always told us, but unless someone you come in contact with who has a common cold or flu, or you come in contact with a contaminated surface or food, you will not catch a cold. You’ll probably just feel cold.